# What is a transition system?

by Stephen M. Walker II, Co-Founder / CEO

## What is a transition system?

A transition system is a concept used in theoretical computer science to describe the potential behavior of discrete systems. It consists of states and transitions between these states. The transitions may be labeled with labels chosen from a set, and the same label may appear on more than one transition. If the label set is a singleton, the system is essentially unlabeled, and a simpler definition that omits the labels is possible.

Formally, a transition system is a pair `(S,T)` where `S` is a set of states and `T`, the transition relation, is a subset of `S x S`. We say that there is a transition from state `p` to state `q` if `(p,q) ∈ T`, and denote it `p → q`. A labelled transition system is a tuple `(S,Λ,T)` where `S` is a set of states, `Λ` is a set of labels, and `T`, the labelled transition relation, is a subset of `S x Λ x S`. We say that there is a transition from state `p` to state `q` with label `α` if `p → q` with label `α`.

Transition systems differ from finite-state automata in several ways. The set of states is not necessarily finite, or even countable. The set of transitions is not necessarily finite, or even countable. No "start" state or "final" states are given. Transition systems can be represented as directed graphs.

In general, a transition system is characterized by a set of states in which it could be, a subset of these states which are the possible initial states of the system, and a finite set of (possibly parameterized) transitions. Besides its name, a transition is characterized by a subset of states in which it is enabled and a transition function.

Transition systems are widely used to model computer programs and systems. They consist of states, representing possible configurations, and transitions, representing possible state changes. Such changes may be governed by an action induced by the system itself or by an external event.

## What are some examples of systems that can be modeled using transition systems?

Transition systems are a powerful tool for modeling and understanding complex systems. They can be used to design and analyze algorithms, to understand and predict the behavior of systems, and to verify the correctness of programs. Here are some examples of systems that can be modeled using transition systems:

1. Vending Machines — A vending machine can be modeled as a transition system where the states represent different stages of the vending process (e.g., waiting for payment, selecting a product, dispensing the product), and the transitions represent the actions that move the system from one state to another (e.g., inserting a coin, pressing a button).

2. Computer Programs — Transition systems can be used to model the behavior of computer programs. The states in this case represent different points in the execution of the program, and the transitions represent the execution of instructions or function calls.

3. Distributed Systems — Transition systems can also be used to model distributed systems. For example, a simple protocol for incrementing a counter in a distributed system can be modeled as a transition system. The states represent the value of the counter at the server and the set of messages sent but not yet received, and the transitions represent the sending and receiving of messages.

4. Hardware/Software Systems — Transition systems are a common semantic model to describe computation/communication in hardware/software systems. For example, a system that involves concurrent processes with shared variables can be modeled using a transition system.

5. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Systems — Transition systems are used in AI, particularly in the field of planning and reinforcement learning, where the states represent different configurations of the world, and the transitions represent actions that the agent can take.

These examples illustrate the versatility of transition systems in modeling a wide range of systems, from simple mechanical devices like vending machines to complex distributed and AI systems.

## What are the advantages of using transition systems to model systems?

Transition systems offer several advantages when used to model various systems:

1. Predictive Modeling — They enable the modeling and prediction of dynamic behaviors in AI systems, which is crucial for developing proactive adaptation strategies and intelligent response mechanisms.

2. System Comprehension — Transition systems can enhance the understanding of software systems, particularly for novice engineers and students, by providing a clear structure for system behavior and interactions.

3. Modeling Concurrency — They are particularly useful for modeling concurrent and asynchronous events, which are common in complex systems.

4. Visual Representation — Transition systems provide a visual representation of system behavior, which can improve understanding and communication among stakeholders, and help in identifying and preventing errors in the system's state transitions.

5. Security Protocol Verification — Transition systems can be used to model and verify the implementation of security protocols, ensuring that systems handle all possible input events correctly and improving overall system quality.

6. Simplicity and Completeness — Compared to other formal modeling tools, transition systems can offer simplicity and completeness, making them accessible for both technical and non-technical stakeholders while still providing a technically accurate model for system development.

These advantages make transition systems a versatile and effective tool for modeling a wide range of systems, from AI and distributed systems to security protocols and user-system interactions.

## More terms

### What is STanford Research Institute Planning System (STRIPS)?

STRIPS, or Stanford Research Institute Planning System, is a programming language and algorithm for automated planning in artificial intelligence. It was developed by Richard Fikes and Nils Nilsson at the Stanford Research Institute in 1969. STRIPS uses a state-space representation of the world to plan actions that will achieve a given goal. The system represents the current state of the world as a set of propositions, or facts, and defines actions as transformations between states. It then uses a search algorithm to find a sequence of actions that will lead from the initial state to the desired goal state. STRIPS has been widely used in robotics, game playing, and other applications where automated planning is required.

### FLOPS (Floating Point Operations Per Second)

FLOPS, or Floating Point Operations Per Second, is a measure of computer performance, useful in fields of scientific computations that require floating-point calculations. For AI models, particularly in deep learning, FLOPS is a crucial metric that quantifies the computational complexity of the model or the training process.