# What is NP-completeness?

by Stephen M. Walker II, Co-Founder / CEO

## What is NP-completeness?

NP-completeness is a way of describing certain complex problems that, while easy to check if a solution is correct, are believed to be extremely hard to solve. It's like a really tough puzzle that takes a long time to solve, but once you've found the solution, it's quick to verify that it's right.

In computational complexity theory, NP-complete problems are a subset of NP (nondeterministic polynomial time) problems. NP problems are a class of computational problems that can be solved in polynomial time by a non-deterministic Turing machine. A problem is considered NP-complete if it satisfies two properties:

1. The problem is in NP, meaning any solution to the problem can be checked quickly, but no efficient solution is known.
2. Every problem in NP can be reduced to it in polynomial time. This means that if an efficient algorithm can be found to solve one NP-complete problem, it can be used to solve all NP problems.

Examples of NP-complete problems include the Traveling Salesman Problem, the Boolean Satisfiability Problem (SAT), the Knapsack Problem, the Hamiltonian Cycle Problem, and the Subset Sum Problem.

These problems are significant in computer science because they are difficult to solve efficiently, but their solutions can be verified quickly. If a polynomial-time algorithm could be found to solve any NP-complete problem, it would mean that P=NP, solving one of the most important open questions in computer science. However, no such algorithm has been found yet, and it remains an open question whether it exists.

In practice, NP-complete problems are often addressed using heuristic methods and approximation algorithms, which may not provide the optimal solution but can offer a reasonably close approximation in a practical amount of time.

## What is the difference between NP-complete and NP-hard problems?

NP-complete and NP-hard problems are like puzzles. NP-complete puzzles can be solved and checked quickly, while NP-hard puzzles might be too tough to solve, but if you somehow do, you've cracked all NP-complete puzzles too.

Both NP-complete and NP-hard problems represent classes of problems that are notoriously difficult to solve. However, there are key differences between the two.

An NP-complete problem is a problem that satisfies two conditions:

1. It is in NP, which means that any solution to the problem can be checked quickly (in polynomial time).
2. Every problem in NP can be reduced to it in polynomial time. This means that if an efficient algorithm can be found to solve one NP-complete problem, it can be used to solve all NP problems.

Examples of NP-complete problems include the Traveling Salesman Problem, the Boolean Satisfiability Problem (SAT), the Knapsack Problem, and the Hamiltonian Cycle Problem.

On the other hand, an NP-hard problem is a problem that is at least as hard as the hardest problems in NP. More formally, a problem X is NP-hard if there is an NP-complete problem Y, such that Y is reducible to X in polynomial time. This means that if you can solve an NP-hard problem, you can solve all NP problems. However, unlike NP-complete problems, NP-hard problems do not have to be in NP, which means that their solutions may not be verifiable in polynomial time.

Examples of NP-hard problems include the Traveling Salesman Problem, the Knapsack Problem, and the Steiner Tree Problem.

## What are some examples of NP-complete problems?

NP-complete problems are a class of computational problems for which no efficient solution algorithm has been found. These problems are in NP, meaning that their solutions can be verified in polynomial time. Some examples of NP-complete problems include:

• Boolean Satisfiability Problem (SAT) — This problem involves finding a truth assignment that satisfies a given propositional formula in conjunctive normal form.
• Knapsack Problem — This problem involves finding the maximum value that can be obtained by including or excluding items with given values, subject to a budget constraint.
• Hamiltonian Path Problem — This problem involves finding a path that visits every vertex of a graph exactly once.
• Travelling Salesman Problem (decision version) — This problem involves finding the shortest tour that visits every city exactly once.
• Subgraph Isomorphism Problem — This problem involves determining if a graph G is is isomorphic to a subgraph of another graph H.
• Subset Sum Problem — This problem involves finding a subset of a given set that sums to a given target value.
• Clique Problem — This problem involves finding the largest set of vertices in a graph that form a complete subgraph.
• Vertex Cover Problem — This problem involves finding the minimum set of vertices in a graph that covers all edges.

These problems are significant in computer science and are often addressed using heuristic methods and approximation algorithms, as finding efficient algorithms for NP-complete problems remains one of the most challenging open problems in the field.

## How can AI algorithms be used to solve NP-complete problems?

AI algorithms can be used to solve NP-complete problems, which are a class of problems that are difficult to solve using traditional methods. One approach to solve these problems is using constraint satisfaction techniques, where an AI algorithm is used to find a solution that satisfies all constraints. Some examples of NP-complete problems include the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP), the knapsack problem, and the satisfiability problem.

Neural networks and genetic algorithms have been used to solve NP-complete problems, showing promising results in finding solutions faster and more accurately than traditional methods. For instance, graph neural networks (GNNs) have been used to learn and solve the decision variant of the TSP, a highly relevant NP-complete problem.

However, there are limitations to using AI algorithms for solving NP-complete problems. These algorithms can be resource-intensive and may require a lot of computing power to find a solution. Additionally, AI algorithms can sometimes be less reliable than traditional methods and may produce sub-optimal solutions.

AI algorithms can be used to solve NP-complete problems, but they have limitations and may not always find the optimal solution. Further research and development in this area are needed to improve the efficiency and reliability of AI algorithms for solving NP-complete problems.

## What are the benefits and limitations of using AI algorithms for solving NP-complete problems?

AI algorithms can be used to solve NP-complete problems, but they have both benefits and limitations. Here are some key points to consider:

Benefits

1. AI algorithms can often find solutions to NP-complete problems faster than traditional methods.
2. AI algorithms can often find solutions that are more accurate than traditional methods.
3. AI algorithms can learn from existing proofs or solutions to improve their performance.

Limitations

1. AI algorithms can be very resource-intensive, requiring a lot of computing power to find a solution.
2. AI algorithms can sometimes be less reliable than traditional methods, producing sub-optimal solutions.
3. AI systems are not capable of generating novel or creative solutions, which may be required for some NP-complete problems.

One approach to solving NP-complete problems using AI algorithms is constraint satisfaction, which involves setting up a system of constraints and using an AI algorithm to find a solution that satisfies all of the constraints. Another approach is using evolutionary methods, such as genetic algorithms, to solve NP-complete problems. However, current AI systems may not be capable of solving all NP-complete problems, and the effectiveness of AI algorithms depends on the specific problem and constraints.

## Are there any other methods for solving NP-complete problems besides using AI algorithms?

There are several methods for solving NP-complete problems besides using AI algorithms. Some of these methods include:

• Constraint satisfaction — This technique involves setting up a system of constraints and using an AI algorithm to find a solution that satisfies all of the constraints.

• Integer programming — This approach involves formulating the problem as a mathematical optimization problem and using an AI algorithm to find a solution.

• Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) — GNNs have been shown to be powerful in solving NP-complete problems, such as the decision variant of the Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP). They can learn to solve these problems with very little supervision and have demonstrated the ability to generalize for larger problem sizes.

• Evolutionary methods — These methods can be used in conjunction with AI algorithms to find solutions to NP-complete problems. They involve creating an appropriate evolutionary context and using AI systems to evolve the weights of the axons.

• Reinforcement learning — Although not all NP-hard problems can be solved using reinforcement learning, some researchers have explored using this approach to find solutions to these problems. The method uses trial and error to find a solution to the problem, with the goal of maximizing overall return.

While AI algorithms have shown promise in solving NP-complete problems, these traditional methods can also be effective in certain cases. The choice of method depends on the specific problem and the resources available for solving it.

## FAQs

### What is an NP-complete problem?

An NP-complete problem is a type of computational problem known for its significant impact on computational complexity theory. These problems are considered to be among the hardest problems in the class NP (nondeterministic polynomial time), and they are characterized by the fact that a problem is NP-complete if it can be polynomial time reducible to any other NP problem. The term NP-complete denotes that a given problem can be verified in polynomial time, but no polynomial time algorithm is known to exist for solving NP-complete problems efficiently.

### Why are many NP-complete problems considered intractable?

Many NP-complete problems are deemed intractable because they cannot be solved quickly, that is, solved in polynomial time by any known efficient algorithm. Instead, solving NP-complete problems typically requires exponential time, which means the time taken to find solutions grows exponentially with the input size. Computer scientists have not yet discovered a polynomial time solution that can solve NP-complete problems, and they often rely on heuristic approaches or good approximation algorithms to deal with such problems.

### Can you give an example of a classic NP-complete problem?

A classic example of an NP-complete problem is the Boolean satisfiability problem (SAT), where the task is to determine if there exists an assignment to variables that satisfies a given Boolean formula. Other well-known NP-complete problems include the traveling salesman problem, the Hamiltonian cycle problem, and the knapsack problem.

### What is the significance of polynomial time reduction in NP-completeness?

Polynomial time reduction is a process that transforms one NP problem into another in polynomial time. The significance of polynomial time reduction in NP-completeness lies in its use as a method to prove that a problem is NP-complete. If a known NP-complete problem can be reduced to another problem in polynomial time, then the latter is also NP-complete. This is a cornerstone concept in demonstrating NP completeness.

### How do computer scientists approach solving NP-complete problems?

Since no efficient solution is known for NP-complete problems, computer scientists often resort to non-polynomial or exponential time algorithms for finding an optimal solution. Alternatively, they may use heuristic approaches, which can find good but not necessarily optimal solutions in a more reasonable time frame. For many NP-complete problems, such approaches can yield a good approximation of the optimal solution without the need for solving the problem in its entirety.

### What is the difference between NP-hard and NP-complete problems?

NP-hard problems are at least as hard as the hardest problems in NP, but they are not required to be in NP themselves (i.e., their solutions may not be verifiable in polynomial time). On the other hand, NP-complete problems are a subset of NP-hard problems that are both in NP and are as difficult as the hardest problems in NP, meaning their solutions can be verified quickly in polynomial time, but finding the solution itself is what poses the challenge.

### Is there any known way to solve NP-complete problems efficiently?

As of the current state of knowledge in computational complexity theory, there is no known way to solve NP-complete problems efficiently (in polynomial time) for all cases. While specific instances of NP-complete problems can sometimes be solved quickly, the general case remains unsolved and is a central open question in computer science, often referred to as the P vs NP problem.

### What is the relationship between NP-complete problems and computational complexity?

Computational complexity is a field of study within computer science that categorizes computational problems based on their inherent difficulty. NP-complete problems are at the heart of computational complexity theory, representing problems that encapsulate the challenge of nondeterministic polynomial time (NP). These problems are significant because they are solvable in polynomial time by a nondeterministic Turing machine, yet no polynomial time algorithm is known that can solve these problems for all possible inputs on a deterministic machine. The term NP-complete is used to describe problems that are as hard as any problem in NP, and if any NP-complete problem is solved quickly (in polynomial time), it would have a significant impact on the field by proving that P equals NP.

### How do the concepts of NP-hardness and NP-completeness impact the development of efficient algorithms?

The development of efficient algorithms is greatly impacted by the concepts of NP-hardness and NP-completeness. While many problems can be solved in linear or polynomial time, NP-hard problems, and by extension NP-complete problems, resist such efficient solutions. NP hardness indicates that a problem is at least as hard as the hardest problems in NP, but finding a polynomial algorithm that can solve these problems remains elusive. This has led to a focus on creating heuristic approaches, which can provide good approximations or solutions for certain problems within a reasonable time frame, even if they are not optimal. For example, the traveling salesman problem and the knapsack problem are NP-complete problems for which heuristic solutions are often employed.

### Can you explain the significance of polynomial time reduction and verification in NP problems?

Polynomial time reduction and verification are key ideas in computer science that help us understand how hard different problems are. In simple terms, if you can transform one tough problem into another one quickly, and check the solutions quickly, then both problems are considered equally tough.

Polynomial time reduction is a crucial concept in computational problems, particularly in the study of NP completeness. It involves transforming one problem into another in a way that the solution to the new problem can be converted back to a solution for the original problem, all within polynomial time. This is significant because if a known NP-complete problem can be reduced to another problem in polynomial time, the new problem is also NP-complete. For a problem in NP, the significance of polynomial time verification is that any given solution can be verified quickly (in polynomial time), even if finding that solution is not as straightforward. This is a key distinction between NP-complete and NP-hard problems, as the latter might not be verifiable in polynomial time. Understanding these concepts helps in classifying computational problems and in exploring the limits of what can be computed efficiently.

### What strategies are employed for solving NP-complete problems when no known polynomial time solution exists?

When faced with NP-complete problems for which no polynomial time solution is known, computer scientists often resort to a variety of strategies. Since these problems cannot be solved quickly in general, researchers look for approaches that can handle many problems within practical timeframes. Heuristic approaches, which provide a way to quickly find a good approximation or solution without guaranteeing an optimal one, are commonly used. For example, the minimum spanning tree can be found using greedy algorithms, which are heuristic in nature. Another strategy involves using exponential time algorithms for small input sizes where the computational load is manageable. Additionally, polynomial time algorithms may be developed for specific cases or variations of NP-complete problems, allowing for efficient solutions to more narrowly defined problems. Finally, polynomial time reducible techniques are used to understand the relationships between different NP problems and to potentially unlock new ways to approach these hard problems.

## More terms

### MT-Bench (Multi-turn Benchmark)

MT Bench is a challenging multi-turn benchmark that measures the ability of large language models (LLMs) to engage in coherent, informative, and engaging conversations. It is designed to assess the conversation flow and instruction-following capabilities of LLMs, making it a valuable tool for evaluating their performance in understanding and responding to user queries.

### What is Bayesian probability?

Bayesian probability is an interpretation of the concept of probability, where probability is interpreted as a reasonable expectation representing a state of knowledge or as quantifiable uncertainty about a proposition whose truth or falsity is unknown. This interpretation is named after Thomas Bayes, who proved a special case of what is now called Bayes' theorem.