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What are LLM Apps?

by Stephen M. Walker II, Co-Founder / CEO

What are LLM Apps?

LLM apps, or Large Language Model applications, are applications that leverage the capabilities of Large Language Models (LLMs) to perform a variety of tasks. LLMs are a type of artificial intelligence (AI) that uses deep learning techniques and large datasets to understand, generate, and predict new content.

LLM App Platforms like Klu.ai enable the entire app lifecycle for developers and AI teams: prototyping, evaluation, monitoring, and prompt/model optimization.

LLM apps can be used for a wide range of Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks, including:

  • Text generation — LLMs can generate text on any topic they have been trained on.
  • Translation — If an LLM is trained on multiple languages, it can translate from one language to another.
  • Content summary — LLMs can summarize blocks or multiple pages of text.
  • Rewriting content — LLMs can rewrite sections of text.
  • Classification and categorization — LLMs can classify and categorize text.

In addition to these, LLMs can be used to create applications for tasks such as:

  • Copywriting — LLMs like GPT-4, Mixtral, Claude, Llama 2, Cohere Command, and Jurassic can write original copy.
  • Knowledge base answering — LLMs can be used to answer questions based on a knowledge base.
  • Conversational AI — LLMs can improve the performance of automated virtual assistants like Alexa, Google Assistant, and Siri.

LLM apps can be used in a variety of business applications and are expected to continue expanding in terms of the tasks they can handle. They can be used to reduce monotonous and repetitive tasks, improve customer service through chatbots, and automate copywriting.

It's important to note that the capabilities of LLM apps depend on the specific LLM they are built upon, the data they have been trained on, and how they have been fine-tuned.

What are the leading LLM app platforms?

The leading platforms for Large Language Model (LLM) applications, also known as LLM app platforms, include:

  1. Klu.ai — Klu.ai is an all-in-one LLM app platform that allows users to design, deploy, and optimize LLM-powered applications. It offers capabilities for collaborative prompt engineering, model evaluation, and optimization. Klu.ai integrates with a variety of best-in-class LLMs and provides insights into system performance and user preference.

  2. Langchain — Langchain is an LLM orchestration tool that is widely used in LLM apps.

  3. Hugging Face Hub — Hugging Face Hub is a platform for sharing and collaborating on LLMs and is used in a significant percentage of LLM apps.

  4. OpenAI — OpenAI provides a variety of LLMs, including GPT-4 and GPT-5, which are widely used in LLM apps.

What are the challenges scaling LLM Apps in production?

The ambiguity of natural languages

Natural languages are inherently ambiguous, with words or phrases having multiple meanings depending on the context in which they are used. This can make it difficult for AI models to accurately interpret and respond to prompts. Additionally, understanding context requires the AI model to have a grasp of background knowledge, cultural nuances, and the ability to make inferences.

Prompt evaluation

Prompt evaluation is a critical aspect of prompt engineering. It involves assessing the effectiveness of a prompt in guiding the AI model to produce the desired output. This can be challenging due to the non-deterministic nature of AI outputs, which can vary even with the same prompt.

Prompt versioning

Prompt versioning refers to maintaining a history of prompts to keep track of which prompt resulted in which output. This is important for maintaining consistency in results. However, as models are updated, applications built around a specific model version might find that their applications behave differently, a phenomenon known as prompt drift.

Prompt optimization

Prompt optimization involves refining the input data to guide the AI model towards generating the desired output. The type and quality of your input data, such as text or images, will play a major role in what kind of output the AI model will be able to generate.


The cost of using large language models (LLMs) can be significant, especially when using longer prompts. The longer the prompt, the greater the resource costs associated with it.


Latency refers to the delay before a transfer of data begins following an instruction for its transfer. In the context of LLMs, latency can be a challenge when real-time or near-real-time responses are required.

The impossibility of cost + latency analysis for LLMs

The rapidly evolving nature of LLMs and their applications makes it difficult to perform a static cost and latency analysis. Infrastructure is being aggressively optimized, and new applications and terminologies are being introduced constantly.

Prompt tuning

Prompt tuning involves adjusting the prompts used to guide the AI model's responses. This can be a complex process, requiring a balance between specificity and flexibility.

Finetuning with distillation

Finetuning involves adjusting the parameters of an AI model based on additional training data. This can be a challenge due to the need for high-quality datasets that adhere to the model's expected format.

Embeddings + vector databases

Embeddings are mathematical representations of words in a high-dimensional space that capture their meanings. Vector databases store these embeddings. Regularly generating and storing embeddings is a challenge in productionizing LLMs.

Backward and forward compatibility

Backward and forward compatibility refers to the ability of software to work with older (backward) or newer (forward) versions of other software. In the context of LLMs, this can be a challenge due to prompt drift, where updates to models can change their behavior.

How do you solve for use cases requiring prompt composability?

To address use cases that require prompt composability, Klu.ai is an effective platform that offers a suite of tools specifically designed for this purpose. Here are some strategies for using Klu.ai:

  1. Leverage Klu.ai for Composable Prompts — Klu.ai provides a robust environment for developing and managing composable prompts. It allows for the composition of complex prompts that can be reused across different applications and tested in various environments. Klu.ai supports multiple models and environments, which means you can tailor your approach to suit specific use cases. The platform also includes intelligent caching mechanisms to enhance performance and reduce costs.

  2. Utilize Klu.ai's Prompt Engineering Capabilities — Klu.ai comes equipped with tools that aid in prompt engineering, enabling developers to create applications with intricate prompt requirements. It offers full lifecycle management of prompts, compatibility with public, private, and custom LLMs, and the ability to craft prompts based on specific contexts and business rules.

  3. Employ Klu.ai's Machine Learning Prompt Flow — Klu.ai's prompt flow tools streamline the development cycle of AI applications that leverage LLMs. It provides a seamless coding experience reminiscent of notebook interfaces, which is conducive to efficient development and debugging. Additionally, Klu.ai includes built-in evaluation tools that help users measure the quality and impact of their prompts.

  4. Use Klu.ai as a Prompt IDE — Klu.ai functions as an Integrated Development Environment for prompt composition and AI integration. It facilitates the creation and testing of reliable prompts, selection of the most appropriate LLM for a given task, and the deployment of AIPI endpoints. Klu.ai also provides comprehensive traceability of the prompt design process, prompt performance analytics, and the option to collaborate on prompt libraries with your team in real-time.

It's important to remember that the success of prompt composability hinges on the continuous iteration and refinement of prompts. Klu.ai supports this iterative process by providing the necessary tools and analytics to refine prompts based on feedback and performance data.

Task composability refers to the ability to combine multiple tasks to form a more complex application. This is often achieved using agents, tools, and control flows.

Applications that consist of multiple tasks

Applications can be composed of multiple tasks, each serving a different purpose or containing unique logic. For instance, a program can perform a sequence of tasks such as converting natural language input to SQL query, executing the SQL query, and converting the SQL result into a natural language response.

Agents, tools, and control flows

An agent is an application that can execute multiple tasks according to a given control flow. Tools are the resources or functionalities that an agent can leverage to perform its tasks. For example, a SQL executor or a web browser can be considered as tools. Control flows dictate the order in which tasks are executed. They can be sequential (one task is executed after another), parallel (multiple tasks are executed simultaneously), or conditional (tasks are executed based on certain conditions, like in 'if' statements or 'for' loops).

Tools vs. plugins

Tools and plugins are similar in that they both provide additional functionality to an application. However, there is a subtle difference between the two. Tools are built-in commands or functionalities of a program, while plugins are external additions that extend or modify the functionality of the program. For instance, in the context of OpenAI, plugins can be thought of as tools contributed to the OpenAI plugin store.

Control flows: sequential, parallel, if, for loop

Control flows dictate the order in which tasks are executed. In a sequential control flow, tasks are executed one after another. In a parallel control flow, multiple tasks are executed simultaneously. 'If' and 'for loop' are conditional control flows where tasks are executed based on certain conditions.

Control flow with LLM agents

In the context of LLM (Large Language Model) applications, control flows can be determined by prompting. For example, you can use LLMs to decide the condition of the control flow. This provides greater flexibility and control over the execution flow of functions within the LLM ecosystem.

Testing an agent

Testing an agent is crucial for ensuring its reliability. It involves checking each task separately before combining them. The two major types of failure modes are: one or more tasks fail, or all tasks produce correct results but the overall solution is incorrect. Testing helps identify and rectify these issues before the agent is deployed.

What are the promising use cases for LLM Apps?

Large Language Models (LLMs) have a wide range of promising use cases across various sectors. Here are some of the most promising applications:

AI Assistant

LLMs can power AI assistants, improving their ability to interpret user intent and respond to sophisticated commands. They can help users with tasks like scheduling appointments, making reservations, and setting reminders. The development of an LLM AI assistant involves multiple roles, including engineers, conversational designers, and product managers, and can provide highly personalized and accurate responses to customer queries.

Content creation benefits from LLMs as well, with The Washington Post's Heliograf generating articles and social media content, freeing journalists for more complex tasks. In risk management, companies like Lemonade employ LLMs for data-driven underwriting and claims processing, improving accuracy and efficiency in the insurance industry.


LLMs can be used to create chatbots that answer customer questions and resolve issues. They have revolutionized customer support by offering personalized assistance and instant responses. LLM-powered chatbots can provide 24/7 customer support, reducing wait times and improving the overall customer experience.

In customer service, LLMs power chatbots like Autodesk's Watson Assistant, handling inquiries and improving satisfaction while reducing service costs. Marketing teams, such as those at Persado, leverage LLMs to produce language that resonates with consumers, enhancing engagement and conversion rates. Sales platforms like Salesforce Einstein use LLMs to prioritize leads, predicting customer behavior through natural language processing to increase sales efficiency.

Programming and Gaming

In the gaming industry, LLMs can generate functional video game levels, write stories, and even accelerate in-VR level editing. They can also enhance player experiences with rich and dynamic content, streamline the game development process through automation, and enable better personalization and adaptation to player preferences.


LLMs can be used in learning environments to create virtual reality training environments for healthcare professionals, helping them learn new skills and practice procedures without putting patients at risk.


LLMs can analyze data and generate insights. They can identify patterns and trends, which can then be used to generate personalized recommendations for products and services. In finance, LLMs are used to improve the efficiency, accuracy, and transparency of financial markets.

Search and Recommendation

LLMs can be used to classify text with similar meanings or sentiments, which can be used in document search. They can also analyze user behavior and preferences to make personalized product or service recommendations.


LLMs can be used to qualify leads and provide sales support. They can assist sales representatives in prioritizing leads with the highest likelihood of conversion.


In marketing and advertising, LLMs can generate personalized marketing content, such as email campaigns and social media posts, helping businesses reach their target customers more effectively and efficiently.

However, LLMs pose challenges, including the potential spread of misinformation, as seen when a travel website's LLM-generated descriptions led to credibility issues. Bias in AI, such as a recruitment tool discriminating against women, can perpetuate inequality and damage reputations. Privacy breaches are a concern, exemplified by a fitness tracker's bot leaking health data. Job displacement is also a risk, with financial analysts affected by LLM-driven report generation.

What are the AI Safety Challenges with LLM Apps?

LLMs have a wide range of promising applications across various sectors, from customer service to gaming, learning, data analysis, search and recommendation, sales, and SEO. These applications leverage the ability of LLMs to understand and generate human-like responses, providing real-time, relevant, and personalized solutions.

To mitigate these risks, businesses should validate LLM-generated content, conduct bias audits, enforce data privacy, and support employee re-skilling. By responsibly integrating LLMs, companies can innovate and grow while maintaining trust. The future of LLMs in commerce requires a balanced approach that maximizes benefits and addresses limitations, ensuring value for customers and stakeholders in the evolving digital landscape.

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