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# What is an adaptive algorithm?

by Stephen M. Walker II, Co-Founder / CEO

## What is an adaptive algorithm?

An adaptive algorithm is a computational method that dynamically adjusts its behavior or parameters in response to changes in the environment or data it processes. This adjustment is typically guided by a predefined reward mechanism or criterion, which helps the algorithm optimize its performance for the given conditions.

For instance, in machine learning, adaptive algorithms may modify their learning rate or other hyperparameters to improve convergence based on the feedback received during training. Widrow-Hoff's least mean squares (LMS) is a classic example of an adaptive algorithm used in adaptive filtering to find the optimal filter coefficients by minimizing the difference between the desired and actual outputs.

In sorting, adaptive algorithms adjust their operation based on the initial order of elements, which can lead to improved time complexity when the data is partially sorted. Examples include adaptive versions of insertion sort, quicksort, and bubble sort, which can perform more efficiently than their non-adaptive counterparts under certain conditions.

In healthcare, adaptive algorithms are defined by the FDA as those that change their behavior using a defined learning process, which is particularly important for applications like personalized medicine where the algorithm must adjust to individual patient data.

Overall, adaptive algorithms are designed to be flexible and responsive, allowing them to perform well across a range of scenarios by tailoring their behavior to the specific context in which they are operating.

## What are some examples of adaptive algorithms?

Adaptive algorithms are algorithms that change their behavior based on the information available at the time they are run. They are used in various fields, including machine learning, optimization, data compression, and sorting. Here are some examples of adaptive algorithms:

1. Machine Learning and Optimization — Adaptive algorithms in machine learning and optimization often adjust their parameters, such as the learning rate, based on the data they process. Examples include:

• Adaptive Simulated Annealing: This is a variant of the simulated annealing algorithm, which is a probabilistic technique used for finding an approximate global optimum of a given function.
• Adaptive Coordinate Descent: This is a variant of the coordinate descent algorithm, which is an optimization algorithm that successively minimizes along coordinate directions to find the minimum of a function.
• AdaBoost: This is a boosting algorithm used in machine learning that fits a sequence of weak learners on different weighted training data.
2. Data Compression — Adaptive algorithms in data compression adjust their behavior based on the data they process. Examples include Adaptive Huffman coding and Prediction by partial matching.

3. Sorting — Adaptive sorting algorithms take advantage of existing order in the input data to improve performance. Examples include:

• Adaptive Heap Sort, Adaptive Merge Sort, Patience Sort, Shellsort, Smoothsort, Splaysort, Timsort, and Cartesian Tree Sorting.
• Bubble Sort, Insertion Sort, and Quick Sort are also considered adaptive sorting algorithms.
4. Healthcare — Adaptive AI algorithms are used in the healthcare industry to provide more personalized care to patients. For example, these algorithms can analyze patient data in real-time, such as vital signs, lab results, and medical history, to predict the likelihood of a patient developing certain diseases or conditions.

5. Financial and Manufacturing Sectors — Adaptive machine learning models are used in the financial sector for detecting fraudulent transactions, predicting trends, and automating trading systems. In the manufacturing sector, they are used for predicting system malfunctions and solving supply chain issues.

The adaptability of these algorithms allows them to provide more accurate and efficient solutions, especially in dynamic environments where data patterns can change over time.

## More terms

### What is cognitive computing?

Cognitive computing refers to the development of computer systems that can simulate human thought processes, including perception, reasoning, learning, and problem-solving. These systems use artificial intelligence techniques such as machine learning, natural language processing, and data analytics to process large amounts of information and make decisions based on patterns and relationships within the data. Cognitive computing is often used in applications such as healthcare, finance, and customer service, where it can help humans make more informed decisions by providing insights and recommendations based on complex data analysis.

### What is constraint programming?

Constraint programming (CP) is a paradigm for solving combinatorial problems that draws on a wide range of techniques from artificial intelligence, computer science, and operations research. It is a form of declarative programming that uses mathematical constraints to define the rules that must be met. In constraint programming, users declaratively state the constraints on the feasible solutions for a set of decision variables.